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Soft power is the ability to shape the preferences of others through appeal and attraction rather than coerce using hard power. Today, most countries are embracing the notion of soft power. Managing soft power resources at the disposal of governments and deploying them effectively is critical for an agile government to build an attractive country image, and thereby enhancing their competitiveness in today’s dynamic and competitive global landscape. This includes but not limited to promoting their country’s products and services globally, attract foreign investors, and promoting international tourism. In this study, we develop and validate a novel ‘3P’ soft power model, using the perceptions about a country’s ‘products’, ‘places’, and ‘people’. Using 167 usable responses obtained from a structured country-wide survey in the UAE, the 3P model developed from the literature was tested for reliability, validity, and model-fitness. While Cronbach’s alpha values confirmed the reliability of first-order constructs (products, place and people), the second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) established the convergent and discriminant validity of the constructs, and operationalization of ‘3P Soft Power’ as a higher (second)-order model. The results have implications for governments and researchers in promoting soft power by leveraging its products, places and people. A robust higher-order factor model for soft power using 3P’s has not been developed previously and constitutes the novelty of this study.

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